What Are The Different Types Of Tyre Tread Patterns?
A tyre’s tread is the part of a tyre that comes in contact with the road. The pattern and depth of the tread determine how well a tyres Morley will grip the road surface while moving. Tread patterns can be designed for off-road or on-road use, optimised for wet conditions, fuel economy, or long wear life. Softer rubber compounds generally produce better traction but less durability than harder ones.
Different Types Of Tyres Used For Different Kinds Of Vehicles :
Radial & Bias Ply Designs – The radial design comprises two belts, one running around the circumference below and parallels to the other across it to form a rib. The belts are made of nylon cords and steel wires, with the latter predominating in the carcass plies for strength and resistance to heat build-up. Radial design is used for all tyres except winter types where better traction performance on snow and ice is required by using transverse steel cables running from bead to bead across the tread.
Bias Ply – In this design, the cord plies run perpendicular or diagonal across the tyre from one bead to another. So, that they may fit into moulds when rubber is cured, they must be flat in cross-section instead of round as in radial designs. This helps them conform to irregularly shaped surfaces which might cause problems in all but radial designs.
Motorcycle Tyres – cross-ply and radial design: Cross Ply design is made of a belt under the tread running from sidewall to sidewall, perpendicular to the longitudinal direction. Radial tyres are designed with belts that run in a plane parallel with the direction of travel.
Radial, Diagonal & Bias-belted Design – Radial: The cord plies in the body, and carcass layers run in straight lines between two beads laid at right angles to each other and the centerline of the tyre. Diagonal: The cord plies run obliquely across the tyre from sidewall to sidewall to form an X or Z pattern when viewed from above. Bias-belted: A radial carcass with a belt of thick cords on each side of the tread face to reinforce the area that bears most heavily against the road under turning and braking.
Truck Tyres – Bias Ply, Super Singles, and Super Duplex:
Bias Ply – In this design, the cord plies run perpendicular or diagonal across the tyre from one bead to another. Transverse steel cables may also be installed in some designs for better durability and load-carrying capability. These tyres are used primarily on heavy-duty work trucks.
A bias-ply has three plies – an extra body ply placed above and below two rubber impregnated fabric plies.
The bias ply was common before 1940, but it has mostly disappeared.
Super Singles – A super single tyre is a one-piece, non-remoulded, load-carrying radial tyre with only two tread plies. The carcass ply in the middle can be made either with steel wires for heavy-duty applications or with polyester cords for lighter-duty applications. Super singles are used primarily on heavy commercial trucks, dump trucks, and concrete mixers.
Super Duplex – A super double tyre has four plies across its tread face instead of just two. One outer ply is made of nylon cord fabric to form the low tread layer, while an inner ply is formed by wrapping steel wires around in a crisscross pattern. This design provides for greater load-carrying capability and longer tread life.
Bias Belted – Bias belted tyres are constructed similarly to bias-ply Evergreen Tyres Morley , but in addition, there is a third cord layer running across the tyre from bead to bead, parallel to the other two. This reinforcement may be made of nylon or polyester fabric cords. The additional belt makes bias-belted tyres stiffer than standard radial tyres to better match the ride stiffness characteristics of conventional bias tyres.