The gallbladder is a tiny sac that stores bile, which is a digestive liquid produced by the liver and utilised to break down dietary lipids. The gallbladder removes moisture from its bitterness store until the juice is extremely effective. The gallbladder is triggered to squeeze its bile concentration into the small intestine when fatty foods are present.
Gallstones (biliary calculi) are tiny stones formed in the gallbladder from a mixture of cholesterol, bile pigment, and calcium salts. They are a prevalent digestive system condition that affects approximately 15% of adults aged 50 and up.
Gallstones can be caused by the crystallisation of excess cholesterol in bile or the failure of the gallbladder to empty fully, among other things.
Gallstones, for the most part, do not create any complications. If stones block ducts and produce complications like infections or pancreas inflammation, you may need immediate treatment (pancreatitis).
If gallstones (or other types of gallbladder disease) are creating complications, surgeons may remove your gallbladder (called a cholecystectomy). Cholecystectomy can be performed laparoscopically (via a ‘keyhole’ incision) or openly. Because the gallbladder is not a critical organ, your body may function without it.
Gallstones are asymptomatic in around 70% of instances. Gallstones can cause the symptoms such as:
An ache in the stomach and back pain is uncommon, but if the gallbladder or bile duct becomes infected, it can cause significant stomach agony after eating a fatty meal, as well as jaundice, fever, and pain.
Gallstones can be divided into three categories:
The most frequent type is mixed stones. Cholesterol and salts make up these substances. Cholesterol stones, which are primarily made up of cholesterol, a fat-like molecule that is essential to many metabolic functions, tend to form in clusters. Cholesterol stones can grow large enough to clog bile ducts pigment stones — bile is a greenish-brown colour due to pigments in the bile. Gallstones composed of bile pigment are normally tiny, although they can form in large numbers.
Gallstones’ causes and risk factors
Females live additional potential than males to acquire gallstones. They’re also more likely in persons who are overweight or have a family history of gallstones.
Gallstones are caused by a variety of factors. The liver produces too much cholesterol in some persons. Cholesterol crystals in the bile can develop and grow into stones as a result of this. Gallstones occur in certain persons as a result of changes in the other components of bile or because the gallbladder does not empty properly.
Gallstones are diagnosed using a variety of assays, including:
Endoscope test – endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography general tests – such as physical examination and x-rays ultrasound – soundwaves generate a picture that demonstrates the existence of gallstones (ERCP). To improve the quality of x-ray images, a small tube is introduced through the oesophagus and injects dye into the intestine.
HIDA scan (hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid) – a form of nuclear scan that evaluates how well the gallbladder operates.
Magnetic resonance imaging MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) is a type of body-imaging technology (MRI). An MRI device is used to image the person’s liver, biliary, and pancreatic systems. An ERCP test is depicted in the image.
Surgical Treatment for Colon Cancer
Early-stage colon cancers are frequently treated with surgery. The sort of surgery utilised is determined by cancer’s stage (amount) and location in the colon, as well as the procedure’s purpose.
Any type of colon cancer treatment Singapore must be performed on an empty and clear colon. Before surgery, you’ll be put on a special diet and may need to utilise laxative drinks and/or enemas to get your entire stool out.
Local excision and polypectomy
Most polyps and some early colon malignancies (stage 0 and early stage I tumours) can be removed during a colonoscopy. This is a treatment that involves inserting a long flexible tube with a small video camera into the person’s rectum and gently easing it into the colon. During a colonoscopy, these procedures can be performed:
The malignancy is removed as part of the polyp, which is cut at its base, during a polypectomy (the part that looks like the stem of a mushroom). This is commonly accomplished by inserting a wire loop through the colonoscope and using an electric current to clip the polyp of the colon wall.
Local excision is a process that is significantly more involved. Tiny malignancies on the interior lining of the colon, as well as a small quantity of surrounding healthy tissue on the colon wall, are removed using tools inserted through the colonoscope.
The doctor does not have to cut into the abdomen (belly) from the outside when cancer or polyps have been removed in this manner. Either of these techniques aims to remove the tumour in its entirety. A form of colectomy (see below) might be the next surgery if some cancer is left behind or if the tumour is deemed to have a possibility of spreading based on lab tests.
A colectomy is a procedure that involves the removal of all or part of the colon. Lymph nodes in the area are also released.
A hemicolectomy, partial colectomy, or segmental resection is when only a portion of the colon is removed. The cancerous section of the colon is removed, along with a small segment of the normal colon on either side. Relying on the extent and area of the venom, one-fourth to one-third of the colon is usually. removed. The colon’s remaining parts are subsequently reattached. At most petite 12 lymph nodes in the region are too drawn to be tried for spite. A total colectomy occurs when the entire colon is removed. Colon cancer removal rarely necessitates a total colectomy. It’s usually only employed if there’s another issue in the colon that isn’t cancer, such as hundreds of polyps.